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Heart Disease 

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) 

Definition

Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against your artery walls as it flows through your heart. It is determined by the amount of blood pumped by your heart and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. Therefore, the narrower your arteries are and the more blood your heart pumps, the higher your blood pressure will be.

 Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. If you have high blood pressure (or hypertension) it will eventually lead to more serious health problems.

Symptoms

Around 4 million Australians suffer from hypertension and of these, more than two thirds have uncontrolled or unmanaged high blood pressure.

 Unfortunately most people with hypertension, even those with dangerously high levels, have no signs or symptoms. A few people may suffer from headaches, shortness of breath or nosebleeds. However these signs may not result until hypertension has reached a life-threatening stage.

Causes

There are two types of hypertension:

  • Primary (essential) hypertension
  • Secondary hypertension

This type of high blood pressure usually develops gradually and in most cases, there is no known cause.

This hypertension is caused by an underlying condition and generally appears suddenly, causing higher blood pressure than primary hypertension. Some conditions which may lead to secondary hypertension include:

  • Obstructive sleep apnoea
  • Kidney problems
  • Adrenal gland tumours
  • Thyroid problems
  • Defects in blood vessels that you are born with
  • Certain medications such as birth control pills, cold remedies, congestants, over-the-counter pain relievers, some prescription drugs
  • Illegal drugs
  • Alcohol abuse or chronic alcohol use

Diagnosis 

Measuring blood pressure is very straightforward and can be done with your doctor. Your doctor will place an inflatable cuff around your arm and use a pressure measuring gauge. The reading has two numbers. The first number (systolic pressure) measures the pressure in your arteries when your heart beats. The second (diastolic pressure) measures the pressure in your arteries between beats.

The measurements fall into four general categories:

  • Normal blood pressure: A normal reading is below 120/80 mm Hg
  • Prehypertension: A systolic pressure ranging from 120 to 139 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure ranging from 80 to 89 mm Hg. Prehypertension tends to get worse over time
  • Stage 1 hypertension: A systolic pressure ranging from 140 to 159 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure ranging from 90 to 99mm Hg
  • Stage 2 hypertension: Severe hypertension. Stage 2 is a systolic pressure of 160 mm Hg or higher or a diastolic pressure of 100 mm Hg or higher

Before being diagnosed with high blood pressure, your doctor will take two to three readings as it can vary throughout the day. 

Treatment

Lifestyle changes are an important way to control hypertension. These include:

  • Eating a healthy diet
  • Reducing salt intake
  • Limiting alcohol intake
  • Regular exercise
  • Not smoking
  • Maintaining a healthy weight

However if lifestyle changes are not enough to manage hypertension, doctors may prescribe the following medications:

  • Thiazide diuretics
  • Beta blockers
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Renin inhibitors

Additional medications also used to treat hypertension include:

  • Alpha blockers
  • Alpha-beta blockers
  • Central-acting agents
  • Vasodilators
  • Aldosterone antagonists

Prevention

If your hypertension is hereditary, it is important to combine a healthy lifestyle with the appropriate medication recommended by your doctor, in order to keep it under control. Ultimately leading a healthy lifestyle is the best way to reduce or prevent hypertension:

  • Eat a healthy diet
  • Reduce salt intake
  • Limit alcohol intake
  • Exercise regularly
  • Don’t smoke
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Reduce or manage stress levels

Research into High Blood Pressure

Research into High Blood Pressure

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