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Heart Disease 

High Cholesterol 

Definition

Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is made by the liver and obtained through the diet. It can be found in the fats (lipids) in your blood. There are two different types of cholesterol including:

  • Bad Cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein or LDL) which carry cholesterol particles throughout your body. LDL cholesterol is bad because it builds up in the walls of your arteries, making them hard and narrow which can increase the risk of a heart attack.
  • Good Cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein or HDL) which picks up excess cholesterol and takes it back to the liver. Having high HDL is linked to lower risk of heart disease, heart attack and stroke.

 Cholesterol is essential in order for your body to continue building healthy cells, however having high cholesterol can increase your risk of heart disease. This is because it can lead to a build-up of fatty deposits in your blood vessels, which overtime can make it difficult for enough blood to flow through your arteries and consequently to your heart.

Symptoms

There are no symptoms of high cholesterol. The only way to detect it is through a blood test. High cholesterol can be inherited or is the result of unhealthy lifestyle choices. The best way to control high cholesterol is through a healthy diet, regular exercise and medication. 

Causes

High cholesterol can be caused by a number of things including:

  • Unhealthy diet, particularly high in saturated fats, trans-fats and sugar
  • Overweight or obesity
  • Lack of exercise
  • Age (cholesterol starts to rise after the age of 20)
  • Smoking
  • Family history 

Diagnosis 

A blood test, specifically a lipid panel or lipid profile, will show your cholesterol levels. The test will report your total cholesterol level, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides (a type of fat in the blood). For an accurate reading you should not eat or drink anything between nine and twelve hours before the sample is taken.

In Australia, cholesterol levels are measured in millimoles per litre (mmol/L).

The range below is a guide for a healthy blood cholesterol level.

Total cholesterol should be between: 3.9 – 5.5 mmol/L

HDL (good cholesterol) should be between: 0.9 – 2.1 mmol/L

LDL (bad cholesterol) should be between: 1.7-3.5 mmol/L

Triglycerides should be between: 0.5 – 1.7 mmol/L

Treatment

Leading a healthy lifestyle through exercise and a healthy diet is important to avoid high cholesterol. If your cholesterol levels remain high, your doctor may recommend medication to help reduce the level. These include:

  • Statins
  • Bile-acid binding resins
  • Cholesterol absorption inhibitors
  • Injectable medication (a new class of drugs which can help the liver absorb more LDL cholesterol)

If you have high triglycerides, your doctor may recommend the following:

  • Fibrates
  • Niacin
  • Omega-3 fatty acid supplement

Prevention

To help prevent cholesterol you can:

  • Eat a healthy diet
  • Reduce salt
  • Limit consumption of animal fats
  • Eat healthy fats like avocados and salmon to increase HDL levels 
  • Avoid trans fats found in fried foods and baked goods
  • Eat whole grains where possible
  • Drink alcohol in moderation
  • Lose excess weight
  • Exercise regularly
  • Quit smoking
  • Know your family history 

Research into High Cholesterol

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